Matthew Liebmann – “Introduction”

The article starts out discussing the surrounding of the Jemez by enemy soldiers and their decision to chose “death over surrender” (1).   Liebmann mentions how the Jemez knew about the future attack of the Spaniards on their village (1).  Both the Spaniards and the Jemez described this intervention as being attributed to “the intervention of the saints” (2).  Next, Liebmann discusses Po’pays Prophecy.  Fourteen years previous to the attack previously mentioned, Po’pay appeared stating that he “received a revelation from the spirits” and that the spirits said “the Spaniards must die” (3).  On August 10, 1680, Po’pays Prophecy was finally realized and the Pueblo Indians united with their allies and attacked the colonial settlers (3).  Next, Liebmann discusses “Pariahs and Paladins: The Romance and Tragedy of Native Revolts” (4).  Liebmann notes how in previous accounts of history, most actions taken by Native Americans were viewed as “savagery,” but recently, “Native American revolts occupy a unique place in the American consciousness” (4-5).  As noted by Liebmann, these revolts tend to be noted as failures because of their lack of correspondence to Eurocentric ideals (6).  Furthermore, he notes that “Native American revolts tend to follow to basic plotlines: that of romance or tragedy” (6).  Then, Liebmann discusses the metahistory if the Pueblo Revolt and the little attention it received from historians and how that is problematic to the historical field (6).  Next, Liebmann discusses historical anthropology and how the “patterns in the Pueblo Revolt . . . are characteristic of anticolonial liberation movements worldwide” (10).  Next, he discusses the subaltern resistance of the Pueblo peoples noted that the marginalized group during this revolutions were “women, children, ethnic minorities, disenfranchised groups, enslaved persons, nonliterate members of society, and indigenous peoples” (12).  Furthermore, Liebmann focuses on the revitalization movements and defines it as “a calculated, methodical effort to reform culture and society that frequently occurs in colonial situations” such as “situations of stress or rapidly shifting power relations” (14-15).  Getting closer to the end, Liebmann begins to discuss the “signs of struggle and the struggle over signs” (17).  He notes how the colonial domination of a society can effect all aspects of colonial life (17).  Going into “collaborative archaeology in the Jemez province of New Mexico,” Liebmann notes how the documents during this time illustrate the “drastic changes in settlement patterns, architecture, ceramic production, and trade” (19).  Lastly, Liebmann introduces the surface archaeology as a “noninvasive research strategy” (22).  First, Liebmann notes that there can be no disturbance of human remains, no destruction of nonrenewable resources, and lastly, sites are compliant to surface studies” (22-23).