Jenness opens up this article noting how “in 1879 S. Q. Lent, a commentator for the Michigan Pomological Society” noted when traveling through Michigan, one will notice that “it is a rare exception to find a single farm on which something has not been done toward the ornamenting of the premises” (201). Jenness notes that midwesterners began to write in journals, articles, and newspapers that “ornamental plants were a particularly appropriate way to make home attractive, that they had a positive moral influence on family members, and that they communicated the family’s virtue to the rest of the community” (202). Jenness continues to discuss how “domestic reformers, horticultural advisers, and commercial nurserymen” would advertise these ornamental plants by “advocating shade trees and flowering shrubs” and would assign “public meaning to ornamental plant culture” (203). These ornamental plants were thought of as illustrating the intelligence and well-mindedness of the individuals living inside the house (203). As noted by Jenness, “Flourishing flower beds or stately shade trees, along with well-kept dooryards and neatly mown lawns, were quiet yet very public reminders of middle-class values and respectability” (203). Jenness then continues by asking “What did ornamental plants mean to the families who cultivated them?” (204). Jenness discusses two families, the Lawrence and Buell, and the significance behind the diaries left from them describing their daily activities and life regarding cultivating these ornamental plants. Jenness then notes that “ornamental plant chores not only required a commitment from all family members, but as Esther’s diary revealed, demanded attention throughout the year” (210). Furthermore, Jenness notes that by looking at the diaries, “in the Lawrence and Buell households, both male and female family members appeared to find ornamental plant care important enough to alter work patterns and family interactions to meet its demands” (212). Jenness notes how from looking over these diaries and journals, Jenness collected that “over the years, the Lawrence and Buell families not only altered patterns of daily life and neighborhood interactions to accommodate their interest in ornamental plants, but actively used flowers and trees as ways to cement and signify family bonds” (216). Overall, Jenness notes the importance of ornamental plants not only to the society, but to the families growing these plants themselves. These plants made connections, strengthened relationships, and built an inter-connected community.
“A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials.” Smithsonian. Accessed March 28, 2018. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-brief-history-of-the-salem-witch-trials-175162489/.
Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England. 1st Vintage Books ed.. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.
Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. 1st ed.. New York: Alfred AKnopf, 2002.
Reis, Elizabeth. Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.
“The Salem Witch Trials Victims: Who Were They?” History of Massachusetts (blog), August 19, 2015. http://historyofmassachusetts.org/salem-witch-trials-victims/.
“The Witch House: Tour Review.” History of Massachusetts (blog), November 10, 2015. http://historyofmassachusetts.org/the-salem-witch-house-review/.
Ulrich, Laurel. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, L650-1750. 1st ed.. New York, N.Y.: Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1982.
Westerkamp, Marilyn J. Women and Religion in Early America, 1600-1850: The Puritan and Evangelical Traditions. Christianity and Society in the Modern World. London ; New York: Routledge, 1999.
“Where Did the Salem Witch Trials Take Place?” History of Massachusetts (blog), October 26, 2015. http://historyofmassachusetts.org/where-did-salem-witch-trials-take-place/.
The article starts out discussing the surrounding of the Jemez by enemy soldiers and their decision to chose “death over surrender” (1). Liebmann mentions how the Jemez knew about the future attack of the Spaniards on their village (1). Both the Spaniards and the Jemez described this intervention as being attributed to “the intervention of the saints” (2). Next, Liebmann discusses Po’pays Prophecy. Fourteen years previous to the attack previously mentioned, Po’pay appeared stating that he “received a revelation from the spirits” and that the spirits said “the Spaniards must die” (3). On August 10, 1680, Po’pays Prophecy was finally realized and the Pueblo Indians united with their allies and attacked the colonial settlers (3). Next, Liebmann discusses “Pariahs and Paladins: The Romance and Tragedy of Native Revolts” (4). Liebmann notes how in previous accounts of history, most actions taken by Native Americans were viewed as “savagery,” but recently, “Native American revolts occupy a unique place in the American consciousness” (4-5). As noted by Liebmann, these revolts tend to be noted as failures because of their lack of correspondence to Eurocentric ideals (6). Furthermore, he notes that “Native American revolts tend to follow to basic plotlines: that of romance or tragedy” (6). Then, Liebmann discusses the metahistory if the Pueblo Revolt and the little attention it received from historians and how that is problematic to the historical field (6). Next, Liebmann discusses historical anthropology and how the “patterns in the Pueblo Revolt . . . are characteristic of anticolonial liberation movements worldwide” (10). Next, he discusses the subaltern resistance of the Pueblo peoples noted that the marginalized group during this revolutions were “women, children, ethnic minorities, disenfranchised groups, enslaved persons, nonliterate members of society, and indigenous peoples” (12). Furthermore, Liebmann focuses on the revitalization movements and defines it as “a calculated, methodical effort to reform culture and society that frequently occurs in colonial situations” such as “situations of stress or rapidly shifting power relations” (14-15). Getting closer to the end, Liebmann begins to discuss the “signs of struggle and the struggle over signs” (17). He notes how the colonial domination of a society can effect all aspects of colonial life (17). Going into “collaborative archaeology in the Jemez province of New Mexico,” Liebmann notes how the documents during this time illustrate the “drastic changes in settlement patterns, architecture, ceramic production, and trade” (19). Lastly, Liebmann introduces the surface archaeology as a “noninvasive research strategy” (22). First, Liebmann notes that there can be no disturbance of human remains, no destruction of nonrenewable resources, and lastly, sites are compliant to surface studies” (22-23).
Harley discusses that out of all the documents used by historians, maps are indeed well-known, but are very difficult to understand (34). Historians tend to place maps under written evidence because of the inaccuracy placed on maps (34). As noted, these maps are seen as being “slippery,” “dangerous,” and “unreliable” (34). The author wants to answer the question of how and why map usage has such a bad reputation. First, Harley notes that the study of maps is not a huge interest among historians (34). Harley further discusses that maps are related to mirrors in which they are a “graphic representation” of the world (35). But Harley argues that maps “redescribe the world – like any other document” (35). Harley then notes how even though maps may not use written world, they use symbols and signs in order to illustrate the meaning behind the map which historians can use to their advantage (36). Then, Harley distinguishes her argument by naming 3 aspects: “1) the context of the cartographer 2) the contexts of other maps and 3) the context of society” (38). For the context of the cartographer, historians note that the maker of the map is not directly correlated to the map that historians have now (38). Next, Harley describes the context of other maps; the relationship one map has with other maps (41). She notes how in her study, a “corpus of related maps is built around the single map” (42). Furthermore, Harley discusses how place-names or toponymy “offer a way of constructing genealogies and source profiles for previously scattered maps (43). Harley’s last aspect, the context of society, discusses the relationship of interpretation between an individual and a society (44). Every map is cultural, therefore, the maps were made for the society of that culture, not outside of that society (44). Harley then discusses the rules of cartography by saying that the main strategy for a cartographer is to identify the”rules of the social order” (45). Lastly, she discusses the meaning of maps by understanding what that map meant when it was first produced to society (46).
Presnell begins the article discussing the benefits of the internet such as being able to provide a variety of information while connecting both the teacher and learner (136). One of the downsides Presnell notes is that the internet has no organization which can waste the time of the researcher (136). Presnell lists several kinds of “serious history” that can be found on the web such as primary sources now being digitized on the internet so that way many individuals can gain access to these documents (138). Furthermore, bibliographies, government documents, specialized reference sources, secondary sources, communication, and syllabi (138-140). Then, Presnell goes over the basics of how to use the internet – describing how to pick a browser, search for information, etc. (142-143). Next, Presnell discusses how to find primary sources. To me, this was the most important part for a historian because sometimes it is very difficult to find a primary source. She says to browse academic sources first (152). Then, use several various search engines to try to narrow down your options (152). If you are looking for a particular primary source, Presnell notes that you should add that as a key term in your researching (152). Also, I learned about H-net which is essentially a blog that discusses real-world issues (so cool) (153). Next, Presnell notes how to evaluate sites concerned with primary sources by looking at the quality of the scans and the documents, searchability, bibliography/webliography, and interpretive and descriptive materials (154-155). Lastly, Presnell discusses a case study looking at Japanese Americans and Internment Camps to illustrate the importance of researching with keywords, search engines, etc.